Mohanakumar. S.
Sponsored by ICSSR, New Delhi

The objectives of the study were: to estimate the competitiveness of the dairy sector in India in the liberalised market regime; to study the cost and return from milk production; and assess how the introduction of MGNGEGA impacts the animal husbandry sector in India. The study is based on an extensive primary survey in major six milk producing states in India. The important findings emerging from the study highlight that there has been a substantial reduction in the return from milk production in major milk producing states in India. It is attributable to shortage of women workers, particularly family labour for cattle rearing after the introduction of MGNREGA; there has been substantial increase in the annual wage rate of permanent labours in major agriculture dominant states in India; and the price of cattle feed has considerably increased over the years and the price of milk has almost been stagnant. As a result, more than 50% of milk producing farmers have reported that they wanted to withdraw from cattle rearing as it is increasingly becoming a venture that does not lead to profits.

Naresh Dadhich, Varinder Jain, Dalbir Singh, Varsha Sharma and Jagdish Prasad Sharma
Sponsored by Indian Council of Social Science Research, New Delhi

The overall aim of this study is to examine the socio-economic impact of chemical inputs in agriculture by way of understanding farmers’ perceptions and experiences and to suggest suitable policy measures to overcome the adverse impacts and to take agriculture on a more sustainable path. The report focused on the state of Rajasthan for its detailed analytical inquiry, besides analysing secondary information, drew empirical insights from a detailed primary survey conducted across three agro-climatic zones, known as Irrigated North Western Plains, Flood Prone Eastern Plains and Sub-Humid Southern Plains. Specifically, six districts were selected viz. Hanumangarh and Sri Ganganagar (Irrigated North Western Plains), Alwar and Dholpur (Flood Prone Eastern Plains) and Chittorgarh and Rajsamand (Sub-Humid Southern Plains).

Shobhita Rajagopal, Kanchan Mathur and Radheyshyam Sharma
Sponsored by Centre for Advocacy and Research

This study was carried out during the months March 2016-July 2016. It was undertaken on behalf of CFAR to understand the efficacy of the free sanitary napkin distribution program UDAAN of the GoR, and to assess the direct and collateral benefits that have ensued to girls who were addressed as part of the Hygiene Management interventions across schools and CFAR intervention areas/slums in Jaipur. The specific objectives of the study were: to measure the efficacy in terms of the level of knowledge and practices related to management of menstrual hygiene internalized by the girls and their caregivers and mentors both at home, community and school post the programme; to study distribution pattern, of sanitary napkins and availability and access to toilets and bins for disposal at community and schools level and to suggest measures across stakeholders to improve the intervention. All the school going girls and non school going girls felt that the scheme has been beneficial. It had helped in saving money on sanitary napkins and also saved the effort of purchasing them from the market. The girls suggested that government should ensure regular supply of napkins in schools and slum areas along with initiating discussions on menstrual health and hygiene on a regular basis. The assessment indicates that creating gender friendly and health promoting initiatives are essential for addressing puberty and menstruation challenges. It is important not only to address the practical issues of menstrual management but also empower girls with information about their bodies.

Varsha Joshi
Sponsored by Ministry of Women and Child, Government of India

The Hon’ble’ Supreme Court of India vide Order dated 7 February, 2013 in Writ Petition (CRL) No. 102 of 2007 in the matter of EXPLOI. OF CHILN.IN J ORPH IN ST OF TN v/s Union of India & Ors has directed that all the institutions are required to be registered under various provisions of the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2000 (JJ Act). In that direction the ministry of Women and Child Development (MWCD) had urged States /UTs to not only identify and register the CCI but also to establish adequate monitoring mechanism for the Homes through Inspection Committee and other Monitoring Committee as prescribed under the Juvenile Justice Act and Rules so that the interest of children is better safeguarded. In this regard the ministry of Women and Child Development has assigned the task of Mapping & Review of Child Care Institutions under the JJ Act & Other Homes in all the districts in the country to Childline India Foundation (CIF) and the National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR). A survey of 17 districts in Rajasthan was conducted by IDS. The study covered private and government CIC homes, Swadhar and Ujjawala homes.

Shobhita Rajagopal and Radhey Shyam Sharma
Sponsored by Centre for Budget and Policy Studies (CBPS), Bangalore

The National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) and State Open Schools (SOS) are the major institutions started by national and state governments for this purpose. The main objectives of the research was to examine if the present system of ODL delivered through national and state institutions have the capacity and potential to fulfil the policy goal of enrolling about 12 million students, who are educationally disadvantaged and find it difficult to access regular schooling, and provide them quality secondary schooling education. The study was carried out during the months of May 2015 to December 2016. The study reveals that the main advantage of enrolling in NIOS and RSOS was seen in terms of improved future prospects both in terms of higher education and job opportunities. Most of the learners felt that after completion of the course they could apply for jobs especially government jobs. However, there are wide information gaps relating to the number and choice of subjects that can be taken, intended and actual practices, and TMAs. The issue of Education vs Certification is central to the ODL processes. There is a greater demand for certification. Academic Support through AIs in terms of contact classes as well as Teacher Marked Assignments is not adequate, especially in Rajasthan. There is also a challenge of using technology: All processes, right from admission forms to teaching learning materials, are online. There is a significant role played by middlemen and agents that does not make the ODL a cost effective option for learners.

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